definition of solid

Definition for solid

We explain what is the solid state and what are the physical characteristics of this state of matter. Examples of solids

solid

Thanks to cohesion, solids have clear limits and an own volume.

What is the solid state?

It is called a solid state to one of the four essential forms in which the matter is presented, along with the liquid, the gas and the plasma. These forms are called states of aggregation of matter.

Matter in solid state (or simply solids) is characterized by a specific arrangement of its particles, based on very rigid and strong links, which translates into a very well defined physical structure.

Said cohesion forces between the particles keep the solid form and volume of the solid, and give it a certain margin of hardness and resistance.

However, these forces can be overcome through physical processes of phase change, being able to convert a solid into liquid or gaseous, and which are:

Fusion. It consists in increasing the temperature of a solid until reaching the maximum it can absorb (called the melting point), from which the excess energy overcomes the nexus between the particles, making them move faster and break their steady state, then flowing as liquid.
Sublimation. Certain solids can be converted to gases directly, without first passing through a liquid state, if heat is added and sufficient pressure conditions are managed.

This is what happens, for example, with ice in very cold and dry places for water to arise.
See also: States of matter.

Physical characteristics

Matter in solid state has the following fundamental characteristics:

Cohesion. Although solids have a chemical nature identical to their liquid and gaseous versions, their particles are very close together, held in place by very strong bonds, called cohesive forces.

That is the reason that the set possesses a defined form, of clear limits and an own volume.
Rigidity. Matter in solid state usually resists deformation: twists, bends, crevices, even in the presence of constant forces such as weight or gravity.

Only if this resistance is overcome, the solids change shape (permanently or temporarily, depending on their elasticity).
Incompresibilidad. Unlike gases and liquids, solids can not be compressed anymore, that is, their particles can not be closer together.

On the other hand, when subjected to extreme compression forces, they tend to fracture or decompose into smaller pieces.
Hardness. In general, solids are resistant to being penetrated by other solids, even when their surface is grated. This is known as hardness, physical strength before the action of other solids. The hardest thing that is known is the diamond.
Elasticity. Contrary to fragility and hardness, the elasticity is that certain solids can suffer a momentary deformation, under the action of a force, and then return to its original shape once the force is finished.

The elastic materials have a shape memory that allows them to return to their previous disposition.
Examples of solid state

Some examples of solid state matter are:

definition of a solid

The metals. With the sole exception of mercury (Hg), metals at room temperature retain their strength and hardness, which is a product of metal bonds between their atoms.

However, given sufficient heat, as in forges or foundries, metals flow as liquids and can acquire other forms.
The ice. The liquid water, when it is brought to its freezing point, that is, when it is removed from heat energy until it reaches 0 ° C, it proceeds to crystallize and turn into ice, a transparent and solid substance.
The stones.

Composed of minerals and limestone or sedimentary elements, the stones found in any road are the clearest example of solidity possible on the planet. Many would be impossible to make them flow as liquid.
The concrete.

Result of the union of materials such as gravel, water and cement powder, first as a wet paste and then as a very hard matter to dry, is used daily in the construction industry.
The bones.

Mineralized with calcium taken from our diet, the bones of our body or the body of any vertebrate animal are those that provide the greatest strength to the body, protecting it from the action of the outside world by its hardness and rigidity.

We explain what is the solid state and what are the physical characteristics of this state of matter. Examples of solids

solid
Thanks to cohesion, solids have clear limits and an own volume.
What is the solid state?
It is called a solid state to one of the four essential forms in which the matter is presented, along with the liquid, the gas and the plasma. These forms are called states of aggregation of matter.

Matter in solid state (or simply solids) is characterized by a specific arrangement of its particles, based on very rigid and strong links, which translates into a very well defined physical structure. Said cohesion forces between the particles keep the solid form and volume of the solid, and give it a certain margin of hardness and resistance.

However, these forces can be overcome through physical processes of phase change, being able to convert a solid into liquid or gaseous, and which are:

Fusion. It consists in increasing the temperature of a solid until reaching the maximum it can absorb (called the melting point), from which the excess energy overcomes the nexus between the particles, making them move faster and break their steady state, then flowing as liquid.
Sublimation. Certain solids can be converted to gases directly, without first passing through a liquid state, if heat is added and sufficient pressure conditions are managed. This is what happens, for example, with ice in very cold and dry places for water to arise.
See also: States of matter.

Physical characteristics
Matter in solid state has the following fundamental characteristics:

Cohesion. Although solids have a chemical nature identical to their liquid and gaseous versions, their particles are very close together, held in place by very strong bonds, called cohesive forces. That is the reason that the set possesses a defined form, of clear limits and an own volume.
Rigidity. Matter in solid state usually resists deformation: twists, bends, crevices, even in the presence of constant forces such as weight or gravity. Only if this resistance is overcome, the solids change shape (permanently or temporarily, depending on their elasticity).
Incompresibilidad. Unlike gases and liquids, solids can not be compressed anymore, that is, their particles can not be closer together. On the other hand, when subjected to extreme compression forces, they tend to fracture or decompose into smaller pieces.
Hardness. In general, solids are resistant to being penetrated by other solids, even when their surface is grated. This is known as hardness, physical strength before the action of other solids. The hardest thing that is known is the diamond.
Elasticity. Contrary to fragility and hardness, the elasticity is that certain solids can suffer a momentary deformation, under the action of a force, and then return to its original shape once the force is finished. The elastic materials have a shape memory that allows them to return to their previous disposition.
Examples of solid state

Some examples of solid state matter are:

The metals. With the sole exception of mercury (Hg), metals at room temperature retain their strength and hardness, which is a product of metal bonds between their atoms. However, given sufficient heat, as in forges or foundries, metals flow as liquids and can acquire other forms.
The ice. The liquid water, when it is brought to its freezing point, that is, when it is removed from heat energy until it reaches 0 ° C, it proceeds to crystallize and turn into ice, a transparent and solid substance.
The stones. Composed of minerals and limestone or sedimentary elements, the stones found in any road are the clearest example of solidity possible on the planet.

Many would be impossible to make them flow as liquid.
The concrete. Result of the union of materials such as gravel, water and cement powder, first as a wet paste and then as a very hard matter to dry, is used daily in the construction industry.
The bones. Mineralized with calcium taken from our diet, the bones of our body or the body of any vertebrate animal are those that provide the greatest strength to the body, protecting it from the action of the outside world by its hardness and rigidity.

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